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Online configurator: LM microscope adapter for all digital cameras and microscopes
Camera recommendation for microscopy application
LM photo microscopes: the flexible photography solution for large sensor cameras!
Image sensor: dynamic range and it's influence on image quality
Improved picture quality through mirror lock-up in SLR cameras
Macro Close-Up Lens: LM Macro lens 40/80 with plan achromatic optics
Improving the quality of your microscope images
Canon Utility Software 3
Focus stacking with our LM macroscopes and LM photo microscopes
Sensor heating in Nikon DSLR cameras in Live View mode
DSLR camera or special-purpose microscope cameras?
Universal adapter range for all Zeiss microscopes with 30 mm internal diameter photo tubes (Interface 60 and Interface P95)
Canon Rebel T4i (EOS 650D) in a practical test
All in one: LM Digital SLR Universal Adapter for phototube and the eyepiece tube (C-Mount, 23.2mm, 30mm 37mm, 38mm, 42mm)
In microscopy, digital SLR cameras are the better video cameras!
Digital macro photography with “classic analogue lenses” at bargain prices
Use of Nikon’s entry-level single lens reflex cameras at the microscope
Camera ranking for microscopy use
Canon EOS Utility 2 and Apple computer
A genuine alternative to stereo microscopes: the Olympus OM-D M5 with the practical LM 40 mm macro close-up lens on the LM macro stand 3
Controlling cameras remotely via PC or Mac
Canon EOS 1200D - simple camera with a very good price performance ratio for microphotography
Tethering software Sony
Photographic and video work on the microscope with the Nikon D3200 entry level camera
Taking photos with the Nikon SMZ18, SMZ25, SMZ800N and SMZ1270i stereo microscopes using our tried and tested LM digital adapters
An overview of the LM microscope adapters
Using HD / UHD / 4k / 6k components in microphotography
Using a tablet (Toshiba runnin Windows 8.1.) for photomicrography
Which camera types are of interest for use in microscopy?
A useful item – battery adapters for DSLR cameras
Testing report: Nikon Camera Control Pro2
Microscope or Macroscope Lighting: 2 IKEA-LED work lamps JANSJÖ for € 9.99 each
Photographing through a microscope eyepiece
Live video streaming and video capture with a mobile computer (notebook)
Time lapse shots with the Canon Utility software – using the timer function
The camera shutter - In photography, a shutter is used to control exposure time. It has a significant influence on image quality.
The Nikon D810 full frame camera in microscopy
Olympus Capture Softwore use in microscopy application
Nikon D7100 on the microscope
Canon EOS remote app: operating EOS cameras by remote control via iPad and smartphone
The Canon EOS utility software via USB or LAN
Practical Test: Nikon D800
Testing report: Nikon D7000 in microscopy applications
C-mount interface and microscope adapter, coupler for Zeiss microscopes with phototube 30 mm internal diameter (Interface 60)
PC remote control of the Nikon Coolpix digital camera in microscopy
Are normal stereo microscopes suitable for high-quality photographic documentation?

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Sensor sensitivity (ISO) in digital cameras

The ISO value indicates a camera sensor’s sensitivity to light. The lower the ISO number, the less sensitive the sensor is to light. High ISO values, on the other hand, mean that quality images can be created even in low light conditions. In analogue photography, the ISO specification denotes the photosensitivity of photographic plates and films, which undergo a chemical reaction when they come into contact with light. Photographers working in analogue should select the photosensitivity of their film in advance, before starting a project, since it is tricky to change films while working. With digital cameras, there are no chemical changes to the sensor and the ISO sensitivity can be set differently for each picture. When light hits the sensor (semiconductor chip), an electrical charge proportional to the amount of light is released and stored. This is called the photoelectric effect (electrons are emitted by a semiconductor exposed to light). At the end of the exposure process this voltage (electrical charge) is read by the sensor and processed

ISO settings have a direct influence on the amplifier before the analogue-to-digital converter (ADC): high ISO numbers give more amplification, while low ISO numbers give less amplification. The camera sensor itself always maintains the same degree of sensitivity; only the level of amplification changes. Depending on lighting conditions, the ISO setting will either be selected automatically by the camera or can be changed manually.

The drawback of increased light sensitivity is an increase in noise – the image loses contrast and appears blurry. Noise levels are strongly influenced by the quality of the camera used. High ISO settings are therefore only advisable with high-quality sensors, in order to avoid excessive image noise. In recent years, semiconductor manufacturing has become more advanced, and this has improved signal-to-noise ratios.
A large pixel area (large sensor) can capture light quanta more effectively. In recent years, however, camera manufacturers have tended more and more frequently to reduce the size of the pixel area. This is detrimental to the signal-to-noise ratio. For each camera model, depending on the production technology involved, there is an optimal relationship between the number of pixels and the signal-to-noise ratio: this is determined by the camera’s sensor size. Camera manufacturers have started to notice this and turned their attention to achieving a better signal-to-noise ratio and better colour rendition (e.g. Canon EOS 1DX, Canon C300, etc.). In some models, tiny micro-lenses are positioned above each pixel site in order to capture the light more effectively. 
The resolution capability (colour depth) of the analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) is a key factor in determining image quality. Colour depth describes the maximum number of colours available to represent a single pixel in an image. For the three basic colour channels (RGB, red/green/blue), an analogue-to-digital conversion is carried out separately per channel. At present, resolutions between 12 and 16 bits per channel are used. In 14-bit mode, the total colour depth is 42 bits for all three channels.
Table listing the current top cameras:
Sensitivity [ISO] Colour depht (Bit)
Nikon D3x 100   -   1.600
Nikon D3s 200   - 12.800
Nikon D4 100 - 12.800 42
Nikon D800 100 - 6.400 42
Canon EOS 600D 100   -   6.400
Canon  EOS 60D 100   -   3.200
Canon EOS 1D X 100  -  51.200 
Canon EOS 1D Mark IV 100   - 12.800
Canon EOS 5D Mark III 100 - 12.800 42
Canon EOS 650D 100 - 6.400 42
Olympus E5 100   -   6.400
After the signal has been converted in the ADC, the image processer further reduces noise. If digital noise reduction is applied to aggressively, image information may be lost.

The ISO value indicates a camera sensor’s sensitivity to light. The lower the ISO number, the less sensitive the sensor is to light. High ISO settings allow quality images to be taken even when light conditions are poor. However, the drawback of increased light sensitivity is an increase in noise: the image becomes grainy and lacks detail. Therefore, it is only advisable to select high ISO numbers when using high-quality camera sensors, with high colour depth and a large signal-to-noise ratio.

Update: 06.07.2012

New LM Digital Adapter for:

Nikon D5 / Canon EOS 5DS R ( without low-pass filter) / Canon EOS 5DS / Nikon D750 / Nikon D500 / Canon EOS 1D X / Nikon D810 / Nikon D4s / Nikon D800 / Nikon D800E / Nikon D4 / Nikon Df / Nikon D610 / Nikon D600 / Canon EOS 6D / Canon EOS 80D / Canon EOS 70D / Olympus OM-D E-M1 Mark II / Sony Alpha 7S II / Nikon D7200 / Canon EOS M5 / Canon EOS 5D Mark III / Sony Alpha 7R II / Canon EOS 60D / Sony Alpha 7R / Sony Alpha 7 / Sony Alpha 7S / Nikon DS-Qi2 (Microscope Camera) / Nikon D3x / Olympus OM-D E-M1 / Nikon D3S / Canon EOS 750D / Rebel T6i / Canon EOS 760D / Rebel T6s / Canon EOS 5D Mark II / Nikon D7100 / Pentax K-5 / Canon EOS 1D Mark IV / Sony SLT-A99 II / Nikon D7000 / Canon EOS 7D Mark II / Canon EOS 600D / Rebel T3i /


High-end intermediate optics for connecting microscopes to:
  • digital SLR cameras
  • digital mirrorless system cameras with an interchangeable lens mount
  • c-mount-, USB- and firewire cameras
  • digital compact cameras and camcorders
[Further information amd prices]
Which digital camera works best on a microscope?
LM Makroskop 16x Convert your digital SLR camera into a professional microscope
Special mounting media  for microscopy

Tips and tricks to connect your digital camera and to process digital images


 Demo Pictures

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