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Online configurator: LM microscope adapter for all digital cameras and microscopes
Camera recommendation for microscopy application
LM photo microscopes: the flexible photography solution for large sensor cameras!
dynamic range and it's influence on image quality
All in one: LM Digital SLR Universal Adapter for phototube and the eyepiece tube (C-Mount, 23.2mm, 30mm 37mm, 38mm, 42mm)
Taking photographs with the Nikon SMZ18, SMZ25, SMZ800N and SMZ1270i stereo microscopes using our tried and tested LM digital adapters
Improving the quality of your microscope images
The camera shutter - In photography, a shutter is used to control exposure time. It has a significant influence on image quality.
The Nikon D810 full frame camera in microscopy
The Canon EOS utility software via USB or LAN
In microscopy, digital SLR cameras are the better video cameras!
Universal connection for all established digital single-lens reflex cameras for Nikon microscopes with V-T phototube
C-Mount: Depending on the size of the CCD chips there are being offered different C-Mount lenses like e.g. C-Mount Adapter 1x, C-Mount Adapter 0,63x, C-Mount Adapter 0,50x or
Universal adapter range for all Zeiss microscopes with 30 mm internal diameter photo tubes (Interface 60 and Interface P95)
Canon EOS-1D X
fullframe camera Nikon D610 on the microscope
Microphotography with the fullframe sensor camera Nikon D4
The Pentax K-5 IIs DSLR camera tested on a microscope
Digital macro photography with “classic analogue lenses” at bargain prices
Use of Nikon’s entry-level single lens reflex cameras at the microscope
Testing report: Nikon D5100 on a microscope
C-mount interface and microscope adapter, coupler for Zeiss microscopes with phototube 30 mm internal diameter (Interface 60)
Almost a classic- Canon EOS 1000D
Canon EOS 100D - how does the currently smallest DSLR perform on th microscope?
Sensor heating in Nikon DSLR cameras in Live View mode
Are normal stereo microscopes suitable for high-quality photographic documentation?
A useful item – battery adapters for DSLR cameras
PC remote control of the Nikon Coolpix digital camera in microscopy
Olympus Capture Softwore use in microscopy application
Photographing through a microscope eyepiece
Live video streaming and video capture with a mobile computer (notebook)
Microscope or Macroscope Lighting: 2 IKEA-LED work lamps JANSJÖ for € 9.99 each
Testing report: Nikon D7000 in microscopy applications
Nikon D7100 on the microscope
Practical Test: Nikon D800
Improved picture quality through mirror lock-up in SLR cameras
Canon EOS remote app: operating EOS cameras by remote control via iPad and smartphone
Explanation: Digital Camera Microscope Rating
Testing report: Nikon Camera Control Pro2
Controlling Olympus digital SLR cameras from your PC with the OLYMPUS Studio 2 software
Connecting a digital camera to a computer via video output

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Sensor sensitivity (ISO) in digital cameras

The ISO value indicates a camera sensor’s sensitivity to light. The lower the ISO number, the less sensitive the sensor is to light. High ISO values, on the other hand, mean that quality images can be created even in low light conditions. In analogue photography, the ISO specification denotes the photosensitivity of photographic plates and films, which undergo a chemical reaction when they come into contact with light. Photographers working in analogue should select the photosensitivity of their film in advance, before starting a project, since it is tricky to change films while working. With digital cameras, there are no chemical changes to the sensor and the ISO sensitivity can be set differently for each picture. When light hits the sensor (semiconductor chip), an electrical charge proportional to the amount of light is released and stored. This is called the photoelectric effect (electrons are emitted by a semiconductor exposed to light). At the end of the exposure process this voltage (electrical charge) is read by the sensor and processed

ISO settings have a direct influence on the amplifier before the analogue-to-digital converter (ADC): high ISO numbers give more amplification, while low ISO numbers give less amplification. The camera sensor itself always maintains the same degree of sensitivity; only the level of amplification changes. Depending on lighting conditions, the ISO setting will either be selected automatically by the camera or can be changed manually.




The drawback of increased light sensitivity is an increase in noise – the image loses contrast and appears blurry. Noise levels are strongly influenced by the quality of the camera used. High ISO settings are therefore only advisable with high-quality sensors, in order to avoid excessive image noise. In recent years, semiconductor manufacturing has become more advanced, and this has improved signal-to-noise ratios.
 
A large pixel area (large sensor) can capture light quanta more effectively. In recent years, however, camera manufacturers have tended more and more frequently to reduce the size of the pixel area. This is detrimental to the signal-to-noise ratio. For each camera model, depending on the production technology involved, there is an optimal relationship between the number of pixels and the signal-to-noise ratio: this is determined by the camera’s sensor size. Camera manufacturers have started to notice this and turned their attention to achieving a better signal-to-noise ratio and better colour rendition (e.g. Canon EOS 1DX, Canon C300, etc.). In some models, tiny micro-lenses are positioned above each pixel site in order to capture the light more effectively. 
 
The resolution capability (colour depth) of the analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) is a key factor in determining image quality. Colour depth describes the maximum number of colours available to represent a single pixel in an image. For the three basic colour channels (RGB, red/green/blue), an analogue-to-digital conversion is carried out separately per channel. At present, resolutions between 12 and 16 bits per channel are used. In 14-bit mode, the total colour depth is 42 bits for all three channels.
 
Table listing the current top cameras:
 
Camera
Sensitivity [ISO] Colour depht (Bit)
Nikon D3x 100   -   1.600
42
Nikon D3s 200   - 12.800
42
Nikon D4 100 - 12.800 42
Nikon D800 100 - 6.400 42
Canon EOS 600D 100   -   6.400
42
Canon  EOS 60D 100   -   3.200
42
Canon EOS 1D X 100  -  51.200 
42
Canon EOS 1D Mark IV 100   - 12.800
42
Canon EOS 5D Mark III 100 - 12.800 42
Canon EOS 650D 100 - 6.400 42
Olympus E5 100   -   6.400
36
 
After the signal has been converted in the ADC, the image processer further reduces noise. If digital noise reduction is applied to aggressively, image information may be lost.
Conclusion:

The ISO value indicates a camera sensor’s sensitivity to light. The lower the ISO number, the less sensitive the sensor is to light. High ISO settings allow quality images to be taken even when light conditions are poor. However, the drawback of increased light sensitivity is an increase in noise: the image becomes grainy and lacks detail. Therefore, it is only advisable to select high ISO numbers when using high-quality camera sensors, with high colour depth and a large signal-to-noise ratio.

Update: 06.07.2012


New LM Digital Adapter for:

Canon EOS 1D X / Nikon D4s / Nikon D750 / Nikon D4 / Canon EOS 6D / Canon EOS 70D / Nikon Df / Nikon D810 / Nikon DS-Qi2 (Microscope Camera) / Canon EOS 60D / Nikon D800 / Nikon D800E / Nikon D600 / Nikon D610 / Nikon DS-Ri2 (Microscope Camera) / Canon EOS 5D Mark III / Nikon D5300 (with automatic exposure chip ) / Nikon D5500 (with automatic exposure chip ) / Canon EOS 1D Mark IV / Canon EOS 600D / Rebel T3i / Canon EOS 60Da for astrophotography / Canon EOS 650D / Rebel T4i / Canon EOS 700D / Rebel T5i / Canon EOS 7D Mark II / Canon EOS 750D / Rebel T6i / Canon EOS 750D / Rebel T6i / Canon EOS 5DS / Canon EOS 5DR ( without low-pass filter) / Nikon D7200 / Canon EOS 760D / Rebel T6s / Nikon D3S / Canon EOS 5D Mark II / Canon EOS 7D / Canon EOS 550D / Rebel T2i / Kiss X4 Digital / Canon EOS 100D / Olympus OM-D E-M1 / Canon EOS 50D / Canon EOS 1200D / EOS Rebel T5 / EOS Kiss X70 / Nikon D3x / Canon EOS 1100D / Rebel T3 / Nikon D7000 /

 

High-end intermediate optics for connecting microscopes to:
  • digital SLR cameras
  • digital mirrorless system cameras with an interchangeable lens mount
  • c-mount-, USB- and firewire cameras
  • digital compact cameras and camcorders
[Further information amd prices]
Which digital camera functions best on a microscope?
LM Makroskop 16x Convert your digital SLR camera into a professional microscope
Special mounting media  for microscopy

Tips and tricks to connect your digital camera and to process digital images


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